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Professor Masashi Adachi’s Life and Study

Professor Masashi Adachi was the designer of the building.

Professor Masashi Adachi was the designer of the building that stood at No. 6, Lane 7, Qingtian Street. Most of the information available on professor Adachi is about science of agricultural chemistry in Japanese. It made translating his work extremely difficult. The following is a brief synopsis on Professor Adachi’s life and his studies basing on excerpts from the Internet and the report prepared by an architectural office that had been entrusted by National Taiwan to conduct a study on Professor Adachi and the residential house he designed.
Professor Masashi Adachi was born in Hokkaido, Japan. He was born on November 13th, 1897 (Japanese Meiji Year 30), the eldest son to Mr. Wataro Adachi of Sapporo City. Mr. Masashi Adachi graduated from the Imperial Hokkaido University, majoring in agricultural chemistry in 1921 (Japanese Taisho Year 10). In the same year he took up position as Research Assistance in the Imperial Hokkaido University. He was promoted to Assistant Professor in March of the next year (1922). He was married in1926 (Japanese Taisho Year 15). On May 3rd of the same year Mr. Adachi was assigned Professor to the Taiwan Governor’s Office High School on Agriculture and Forestry. On the 5th day of the same month Mr. Adachi was sent to study in Germany, the United States and Britain for two years as the overseas research scientist stationed in the Taiwan Governor’s Office. Of this period, he spent one and a half years working on microorganisms in the soil in University of Leipzig as his core of research and traveled and studied in the United States and Britain.

On July 27th, 1928 (Japanese Showa Year 3) Mr. Adachi was instated as assistant professor and special professor in the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry. In March 23rd of the following year he was promoted to full Professor in the Imperial Tohoku University. He held the Lecturer’s Chair in the Faculty of Science and Agriculture, lectured on applied microorganisms in soils, and was engaged in studies on microorganisms in soils. The main focus of his study was identifying and differencing of beneficial and harmful bacteria besides pathogenic bacteria and fungi in soils. Further study focused on the application of beneficial bacteria in agriculture. To further demonstrate his work, Professor Adachi used beneficial bacteria as fertilizers, a rare idea on an item often used in Taiwanese agricultural growth.
According to Professor Adachi’s eldest son Adachi Moto.Professor Adachi maintained a cooperative relationship with the Taiwan Sugar Company, and engaged in studies of microorganisms in soils in sugar planting fields. The study was quite successful in terms of results. At the time, Taiwan Sugar Company used sulphonamide fertilizer in large quantities, and as a consequent the productivity of sugar cane dwindled year after year, resulting in many shut-downs of sugar mills. Having identified the problem, Taiwan Sugar Company began study on compost. Professor Adachi won the trust of the sugar manufacturing companies with his solid research results and experience, and was fully entrusted to assist the companies in correcting the situation. Among these companies, the Yanshui Harbor Sugar Manufacturing Company and the Taiwan Sugar Manufacturing Company provided 3000 hectares of land for conducting compost studies and experiments. A fruitful result was eventually achieved, (Based on correspondence from Mr. Adachi Moto.)

Unfortunately, the research was interrupted by the Pacific War, and his research documents were tragically lost in warfare. In 1942 (Japanese Showa Year17) Professor Adachi served as Technician of the Taiwan Governor’s Office. In 1944 (Japanese Showa Year19) Professor Adachi took a trip on official business to the Department of Agriculture and Forestry in Tokyo, and failed to return to Taiwan when the Japanese was defeated and surrendered.

Mr. Adachi Moto remembered that his father was very serious about his research work. His father once got into a car accident, but he returned to his research lab immediately and worked without bothering to wait until he was sufficiently fit to work again. Upon his return to Japan, Professor Adachi enjoyed attending opera performance, or watching movies in Asakusa. Mr. Ma Guoguan recalled there was a set of complete works by Japanese author Natsume Soseki, but he was not sure whether the set was left behind by Professor Adachi or not. The architectural design of the house and the plants in the yard are manifestations that the owner was a well-read gentleman with exquisite taste.

1897
明治30
Born first to Mr. Taro Adachi of Sapporo City, Hokkaido, Japan
1897
1921
大正10
Received a Bachelor degree in Agricultural Chemistry from Imperial Hokkaido University. In April, became an assistant in the department.
1921
1922
大正11
Promoted to teaching assistant in March.
1922
1926
大正15
Married Manko,daughter of Kantaro Suzuki, past Prime Minister of Japan on May 3rd. Offered position of professorship with the Agricultural High School of the Taiwan Governor Office. Proceeded studies overseas in Germany, Britain and United States.
1926
1927
昭和2
University Housing Credit Union applied for approval on September 15th. Members of the Union were mostly university professors. Construction on the university was not yet completed.
1927
1928
昭和3
Construction of the university was completed and in immediate operation without any means of accommodation for teachers and staffs. On July 27, professor Adachi was assigned teaching position as Assistant Professor.
1928
1929
昭和4
Professor Adachi was nominated Professor in the Imperial Taihoku University and chair to the Applied Microbiology in the Faculty of Agriculture.
1929
1931
昭和6
Professor Adachi's residence house at Qingtian Street was ready and the family moved in. The house, a regular flat, then had an address of Lot 162-32, Longanpo. The wooden-framed flat stood alone on a lot measuring around 43 ping.
1931
1936
昭和11
The February 26 Incident outbreak in Tokyo Japan, an attempted coup d'etat by young military officers, left several leading politicians assassinated and Prof. Adachi's father-in-law Kantaro Zuzuki seriously wounded. The Adachi family hurried to visit him in Tokyo.
1936
1942
昭和17
Assumed part-time job as High Technician with the Taiwan Governor Office.
1942
1944
昭和19
In November Professor Adachi went to Tokyo on business trip on behalf of the Department of Forestry and Agriculture. He was unable to return to Taiwan after the outbreak of Sino-Japanese War.
1944
1945
昭和20
Eldest son Adachi Moto returned to Japan.
1945
1946
昭和21
On May 31st, resigned from his official post with the Taiwan Governor's Office. Moved to Osaka and took up residence there.
1946
1953
昭和28
Became professor with the Hayanami University of Osaka.
1953
1957
昭和32
Became professor with the Faculty of Agriculture of the Osaka University
1957
1963
昭和38
Became professor with the Faculty of Agriculture of Tamagaya University.
1963
1965
昭和40
Presented desertation "Studies on Microbiological Chemistry on Soil Improvement Through Microbiological Means in Tropical and Subtropical Area Cultivation Operations", and was conferred Doctoral degree from the Imperial Hokkaido University.
1965
1965
昭和47
Retired.
1965
1978
昭和53
Passed away on January 25th, aged 81
1978

足立仁教授的參考資料:
1. 日日新報
2. 台灣人物誌
3. 足立元彦所寫『我的父親足立仁簡歴』,台大校園文化資産課程的訪談資料
4. 游雲霞所著『青田行走』
5. 陳瑜研究報告(台北帝国大学理農学部農芸化学科に関する研究)
http://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2115/45219/1/ARHUA6_007.pdf
6.張志成建築師事務所馬廷英故居報告書

日本時代的昭和町

臺北帝國大學籌備成立之時,由日本本土延聘教授、助教授等教師來臺。然而卻面臨住宅短缺的窘境。1927(昭和2)年9月15日,「大學住宅信用組合」向總督府提出成立的申請,於12月9日獲得許可。 這是一個住宅合作社,以大學教授為組員,組合長為後來擔任校長的幣原坦,其資本金7萬圓,其中3萬5千圓為組員存入之股金,另預計申請低利貸款15萬圓,此時臺北帝大尚未開校。1928(昭和3)年3月10日,臺北帝國大學開校在即,總長以下多數教授的住宅問題卻仍沒有解決,面臨「住宅荒」,總長幣原坦必須暫時住在鐵道旅館內,在住宅組合甫獲准設立尚未有效運作之際,教授們只能在臺北市內暫時租賃住宅充當官舍。

臺北帝大一方面開始在今溫州街一帶興建職務宿舍,當時被稱為「大學官舍」,至此,龍安坡一帶的地景地貌開始產生劇烈變化。1929(昭和4)年,臺北高商教授佐藤佐發起組成「高商住宅信用利用組合」,開始在今日青田街東西兩側購地並分割基地,以寬5間(約9m)的道路,即今日青田街為界,以東為「大學住宅組合用地」,道路以西則為「高商建築組合用地」。

建築住宅所需之各筆土地,全部由462番地分割而來,共計細分為37筆。在地籍特性上,道路巷弄方面如462-2番地及462-1(高商建築組合所有)番地組成今日和平東路183巷,5間道路由462-5(高商建築組合所有)及462-4(大學住宅組合所有)兩筆土地所組成,462-16為今日青田街11巷、426-25為青田街9巷、426-34則為青田街7巷。大學住宅組合用地範圍內,依南北軸向細分土地,除了分割5筆道路巷弄外,共切割成30筆宅地。其中面臨計畫寬度為11間(約30m)的古亭三張犁道(今和平東路)的街廓,分割成10筆;位於基地中央的兩個街廓,則各切割為8筆土地,每筆佔地約206.5坪,足立仁教授的宅地,則為462-32番地。

參與起建的臺北帝大教授,以「保證責任大學住宅信用利用組合」的名義,向東京勸業銀行貸款,並聘建築家著手設計興建住宅。從1930(昭和5)年起,此地大興土木,分屬30位大學教授所有的獨棟住宅陸續完工,使此地的風貌由昔時的農田景象,轉變為高級的住宅區,與南側的大學官舍連成一氣。足立仁出任臺北帝大教授後,曾參與大學住宅組合以自力建屋。大學住宅組合,在臺灣現存的日式木造住宅(宿舍)中,是屬於集體開發興建的住宅群,且因成員全為大學教授所組成,屬於特殊階級,戶戶建築皆依照自家需求來設計,故其空間配置與外觀形式各有差異,在建築類型上,應視為集體興建的私宅,與由學校集體興建的職務宿舍不盡相同。足立仁參與大學住宅組合的時間、向日本勧業銀行貸款的金額、攤還年限、利息等等經費帳務資料,以及由何人設計、何人承攬營建等等建造資料,均因缺少第一手檔案而尚無法釐清,仍待進一步追查。

 

此頁背景是1945年的昭和町美軍空照圖

 

Japanese times

During the preparatory period of the founding of the Imperial Taihoku University, there were intense activities in inviting and recruiting faculty members in the capacities of assistant and associate professors to fill teaching posts. During this fervent search for the right staffs, the preparatory committee found themselves facing a strange, embarrassing situation: there were no accommodating or residential facilities for the academic members and staffs. On September 15th, 1927 (Japanese Showa Year 2) a proposal “University Credit Union for residential houses” was submitted to the Governor’s Office, applying for the government’s approval to have a credit union organized. The proposal was given a nod of approval on December 9th. This was a cooperative organization for planning and construction of staff houses for university staffs, with university professors as cooperative members. Head of the cooperative organization was professor Shidehara Tan (幤原坦), who later became President of the university. The total working capital was 70,000 yen, of which 35,000 came from share money from participating professors. Another 150,000 was to be acquired through applying for loans. At this time, the university was not yet in operation.On March 10th, 1928 (Japanese Showa Year 3) the Imperial Taihoku University was ready to start operating, however, with the exception of the CEO, residential houses for most professors remained a problem to be solved. Confronted with this “housing draught” President Shidehara made do by accommodating himself in a railroad hotel room. Although the Credit Union was approved, the teaching faculty staffs could do nothing but accommodate through renting or borrowing houses in Taipei before actual effective operation of the coop went into work.

The university then started construction of official houses for university staffs in the area where the present day Wenzhou Street is. These houses were known as “Official University Residences”. By now, the skyline and scenery around Longanpo began to take shape and drastically changed the local scenes.In 1929 (Japanese Showa Year 4), professor SatouTasuku of the Taipei Commercial High School proposed to organize a “Utilization of residential house cooperation credit union for Commercial High School”, and started purchasing and subdividing the land into lots and parcels along the east and west sides of the present day Qingtian Street. A 9-meter wide road, now Qingtian Street, served as boundary: east of this road was the land for use in “University Credit Union for residential houses”; to the west there was land for “Utilization of residential house cooperation credit union for Commercial High School”. All parcels of land required for house construction came from subdividing Lot 482, which was subdivided into 37 parcels. In terms of land cadastral characteristics land for roads and lanes came from Lots No. 482-2 and 482-1 (owned by the Commercial High School) and formed what is now Lane 183, Heping East Road. The 9-meter wide road was from Lot 482-5 (owned by the Commercial High School Credit Union), and Lot 482-4 (belonging to the University Credit Union. Lot 482-16 was now Lane 11, Qingtian Street, Lot 428-25 was Lane 9, Qingtian Street and Lot 428-34, Lane 7 of Qingtian Street.

Within the coverage of the “University Credit Union for residential houses” building lots were divided along a north-south extending axis. Besides the roads and lanes there were 30 parcels of land. Among them, the tract of land that bordered the 90-meter wide thoroughfare in the project area, the Guting-Sanzhangli Road, the present day Heping East Road area, was designated as commercial market section, and was divided into 10 lots. Two commercial sites in the center of the project site were subdivided into 8 plots of 206.5 ping each in surface area. Professor Masashi Adachi’s house was located on Lot No. 462-32.

The Imperial Taihoku University professors who participated this construction project secured a loan from the Tokyo Kangyou Bank for ”Guaranteed responsibility credit union for university residential usage”, and also hired an architect to design, manage and supervise the house construction project. From 1930 (Japanese Showa Year 5) onward, the site became busy with house building activities. All 30 of the professors’ houses were finally constructed and completed. The vast landscape of rice paddy-fields are gone and replaced by splendid first-class residential houses, which blends smoothly with the Official Residential Houses of the university to the south.

Aerial photo of the Showa-cho US Army in 1945